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Chronological/Century

18th Century Art

19th Century Art

20th Century Art

21st Century Art

Countries & Cultures

Painters of the World by Nationality


Canadian Art History - Alphabetical

International Art Galleries

Art Galleries of Europe

Art Galleries of the UK

Art Galleries of the USA

Art Galleries of Canada

Toronto Artists & Art Galleries

Armenian Artists


Azerbaijani Artists

Bosnian and Herzegovinian Artists

Chinese Landscape Painting

Christian Art - Abraham to Zacharias, Alphabetical

Greek & Roman Art - Achilles to Zephyr, Alphabetical

Estonian Artists

Iraqi Artists

Islamic Art of the 16th & 17th Centuries


Turkish Artists

Zimbabwean Artists



Art Movements & Periods


Abstract Expressionism

American Scene

Anti-Design

Arbeitsrat fur Kunst

Art Brut

Art Deco

Arte Povera

Art Informel

Arts and Crafts

Art Nouveau

Ashcan School

Assemblage

Bauhaus

Beat Art

Body Art


Chicago School

Cloisonnism

Co.Br.A.

Combines

Conceptual Art

Concrete Art


Constructivism

Cubism

Dada

Decadent Movement

Der Blaue Reiter


Der Ring

De Stijl

Deutscher Werkbund

Die Brucke

Earth Art

Ecole de Paris

Elementarism

Existential Art

Expressionism

Fantasy Art

Fauvism

Fluxus

Funk Art

Futurism

Graffiti/Punk Art


GRAV



Gruppo 7

High-Tech

Hungarian Activism

Impressionism

Installation

International Style

Internet Art

Jack of Diamonds

Jugendstil

Kinetic Art

Kitchen Sink School

Les Vingt


Lettrism

Magic Realism

M.I.A.R.

Minimalism

Modernisme

Nabis

Neo-Dada

Neo-Expressionism

Neo-Gothic Art



Neo-Pop Art

Neo-Romanticism


Neue Sachlichkeit

New Brutalism

Nouveau Realisme

Novecento Italiano

Novembergruppe

Op Art

Organic Art

Orphism

Outsider Art

Performance Art

Pin Up Art

Pittura Metafisica

Pop Art

Post-Impressionism


Post-Painterly Abstraction

Precisionism

Prehistoric Art

Purism

Rayonism



Romanticism

Salon de la Rose Croix

School of Amsterdam

Site Works

Situationist International


Social Realism

Socialist Realism

Sound Art

Stuckism

Super-Realism

Supports-Surfaces

Suprematism

Surrealism

Symbolism

Synthetism

Synchromism

Transavanguardia

Video Art


Vienna Secession

Visionary Art

Vorticism

World of Art




Art Manifestos




The 1st & 2nd Dada Art Manifestos


The Extropic Art Manifesto

The Neo-Gothic Art Manifesto

The Stuckist Manifesto

The Remodernism Manifesto

Visionary Art Manifesto

Architects & Architecture

Ancient Architecture

Asian Architecture


Bizarre Architecture

Byzantine & African Architecture

Gothic Architecture

Renaissance Architecture




Baroque & Rococo Architecture

Neo-Classicism Architecture


Industrial Architecture

Nouveau Architecture

Modernist Architecture

Postmodernist Architecture

Contemporary Architecture

Haussmann's Paris

Urban Cactus

Cityscapes by Eleanor Bond

The Future of Condos: Pyramids


Underwater Condos


Mixed-Media Artists

Jenny Holzer

Barbara Kruger

Pablo Picasso

Martha Rosler

Toros Roslin

Joyce Wieland


Andy Warhol






Painters

A. Andrew Gonzalez

Abdul Qadir Al Rassam

Ala Bashir

Albrecht Altdorfer

Andy Warhol

Antoine Wiertz

Arshile Gorky


Artemisia Gentileschi

Arthur Lismer

A.Y. Jackson

Bertram Brooker

Berthe Morisot

Braco Dimitrijevic

Carl Schaefer

Charles Demuth

Charles Prendergast


Daphne Odjig

Darmin Veletanlic

Dong Qichang

E.J. Hughes

Eleanor Bond

Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun

Emily Carr

Faeq Hassan

Frank Frazetta


Frank Johnston

Franklin Carmichael

Franz Pforr

Franz Von Stuck

Frederick H. Varley

Frida Kahlo

Friedrich Overbeck

Gabrijel Jurkic

Georgia O'Keeffe


George Ault

Giuseppe Castiglione / Lang Shi'ning

Gong Xian

Gustav Klimt




Henderson Cisz

Henry Fuseli

Hovsep Pushman


Huang Gongwang

Huang Tingjian

Hua Yan

Iba N'Diaye

Ivan Aivazovsky

Jack Bush

J. E. H. MacDonald

Joyce Wieland

Karen Aghamyan


Ken Danby

Kosta Hakman

Lawren Harris

Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Lucian Freud

Martiros Saryan

Mersad Berber

Minas Avetisyan

Mordechai Ardon


Nesim Tahirovic

Ni Zan

Olivia De Berardinis

Pablo Picasso

Patrick Nagel

Paul Gauguin

Paul Peel

Rosa Bonheur

Sara Ashurbeyli


Sattar Bahlulzade(h)

Suad al-Attar

Tahir Salahov

Tamara De Lempicka

Togrul Narimanbekov

Tom Thomson

Tomma Abts

The Group of Seven

Vincent Van Gogh


Vann Nath

Ismail Acar

Hoca Ali Riza

Avni Arbas

Esref Armagan

Tomur Atagok

Bedri Baykam

Nevin Çokay

Adnan Coker


Gürkan Coskun

Abidin Dino

Burhan Cahit Dogançay

Erkan Genis

Bahadir Gökay

Nazmi Ziya Güran

Osman Hamdi Bey

Abdulcelil Levni

Setenay Özbek


Seker Ahmet Pasa

Fikret Muallâ Saygi

Fahrelnissa Zeid

Adamson-Eric

Eugen Dücker

Konrad Mägi

Lydia Mei

Juhan Muks

Evald Okas


Kristjan Raud

Martin Saar




Richard Sagrits

Michael Sittow

Eduard Wiiralt

Photographers

Alberto Korda


Barbara Kruger

Eadweard Muybridge

Leonard Nimoy

Man Ray

Martha Rosler

Cindy Sherman

Cindy Sherman 2

Printmakers


William Blake 1: The Gothic Life of William Blake

William Blake 2: William Blake's Ecofeminism

William Blake 3: Master of Gothic Romanticism

Andy Warhol

Alakbar Rezaguliyev

Sculptors

Amandus Adamson

Sevgi Çagal


Daniel Edwards

Katharina Fritsch

Jeff Koons

Joseph Muzondo

Auguste Rodin

Enn Roos

Benno Schotz

Endel Taniloo

Florence Wyle


Franz Von Stuck

Fountains in Art History





Women Artists

The Feminist Art History Archive

20th Century Feminist Artists

Women Artists of the 20th & 21st Centuries


Books about Women Artists

Eleanor Bond

Rosa Bonheur

Emily Carr

Tamara De Lempicka

Katharina Fritsch

Artemisia Gentileschi

Jenny Holzer

Frida Kahlo


Barbara Kruger

Berthe Morisot

Daphne Odjig

Georgia O'Keeffe

Martha Rosler

Cindy Sherman

Cindy Sherman 2

Joyce Wieland

Florence Wyle


Olivia De Berardinis

Estonian Feminist Artists

Turkish Feminist Artists

Feminist Art Practices & Political Art


Didn't find what you're looking for? Try our Art History Links Database.





Bizarre:

The Pop Culture of Graffiti in Toronto

Canadian Artist Chops Off Toe and Calls it Art


Bizarre Architecture

Strange Sculptures from Around the World

Postmodern Architecture - Urban Cactus

The Art & Philosophy of Cannibalism

The Future of Condos: Pyramids

Criticism/History:

The Most Popular Artworks of All Time

Gender in the Visual Arts


Why I Hate the Group of Seven

Edouard Manet: Conceptualization in Olympia and The Bar at the Folies-Bergère

Iconic Images of War

The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction

The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Neo-Gothic Sculpture or the Lack Thereof

The European Ideal Beauty of the Human Body in Art

Slavery in European Art: Slavery is a Woman

The History of Stuckism


Buddhist Paintings of South Korea

Dada & Surrealism - Major Works Chronology

Tristan Tzara - French Poet & Co-Founder of DADA

Islamic Art of the 16th & 17th Centuries

The Arts and the Mass Media

White Box Gallery: Rethinking Art Galleries in the 21st Century

Abstraction: Perfection and Amateurism


Fountains in Art History


Learn How:

How to Draw People

News:

AGO gets $50 million Bernini sculpture

Edvard Munch Paintings Recovered

The Paintings of Muayad Muhsin


Muayad Muhsin Vs. American Arrogance

Modern Iraqi Art: Spotlight on Muayad Muhsin

Daniel Edwards: Controversial Britney Sculpture Makes It Big

Daniel Edwards: Hillary Clinton Busted

Art for Adults:

The History of Lovers in Art


The History of the Kiss in Art

Nudes and Prudes

20th Century Nudes in Art

Erotic Art of Japan

Erotic Art of Europe

The History of Pin-Up Art

Abstract Impressionism



Abstract Impressionism is an art movement originating in New York City in the 1940’s. This was the first American movement to gain worldwide recognition, and put New York at the center of the art world; an achievement formerly awarded to Paris. Robert Coates coined the term ‘abstract impressionism’ in 1946 in one of his critiques of the new artwork. The most important predecessor of abstract impressionism is Surrealism, which also emphasizes spontaneous and subconscious creation. The name of this period reflects the combination of unique self expression with emotional intensity, and contrasts the ideas or Futurism and Cubism.

Abstract Impressionism is a form of art where the artist expresses himself through the use of form and color, with no objective representations. The movement can be divided into two groups: the Action Painting expressed by artists like Pollock and De Kooning; and Color Field Painting practiced by Rothko and Noland. Famous artists of this movement include Pollock, Gorky, Riopelle, Rothko, de Kooning, Motherwell, and Kline; their works possess very different moods and subjects, yet share qualities such as sizable canvasses, flat compositions, and the fact that all areas of the piece are filled with movement and paint (instead of creating a focal point, or an area of the most interest).


Action Art

The term ‘Action Art’ or ‘Action Painting’ was coined initially by Harold Rosenberg, one of the most vocal proponents of the Abstract Expressionist movement. He was know for his strong criticism of society, political issues and art – opposing the views of formalist critic Clement Greenberg. Action art represents unconventional techniques of applying paint to canvas including splashing, slashing, and dribbling. Action painters believed that the actual expressive act of painting held the power of the artwork, versus the finished product. Harold Rosenberg describes the action painting movement as being ‘not a picture but an event’. One of the leading artists of this art period was Jackson Pollock who used the drip and splatter technique on many of his canvasses. Many critics will agree that the attraction to Pollock’s art is energy and drama that it radiates. It is hard to tell how much of Jackson Pollock’s art is planned and how much is left to chance and flying paint. Another action painter, William Green, used a bicycle in the production of his art. He’d ride over the canvas on a bike, whereas other similar artists like those in the Gutai Group from Japan painted with their feet as they hung from ropes. Art critics have been divided about the actual worth and purpose of action art / action painting. Nevertheless action art is a noticeable subsection of Abstract Expressionism, and was an important precursor to later techniques like Spin Art and Disruptive Painting.


Jackson Pollock

Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming in 1912, and studied at the Manual Arts High School (1928), and the Art Students League in New York (1930). Pollock’s instructor in New York, Thomas Hart Benton, was a continual support through Pollock’s career. Artists that influenced Pollock and were respected by him included Jose Clemente Orozco, Pablo Picasso and Diego Rivera. Surrealism, the precursor to abstract impressionism, also greatly influenced the artist. Pollock’s first solo show was held in 1943 at the Guggenheim, where he received a contract until 1947. This contract allowed the artist to devote all his time to painting, and we can see that his works moved away from figurative styles and more into abstract techniques, and abstract impressionism. Pollock is renowned for his splashing and dripping paint onto a canvas, which gave him the nickname ‘Jack the Dripper’. After completing his contract at the Guggenheim, he was supported by the CIA via the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Pollock died in a car accident in 1956.

Art Deco



Art Deco was introduced in the 1920’s and reigned through the 1930’s, encompassing both the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression. It is an elegant style of decorative art and architecture reflective of Art Nouveau, yet with more modern sophistication. Art Deco features sleek straight lines and an element of boldness.The movement affected city styles, architecture, high fashion, jewelry, commercial printmaking, and interior design, and embraced lifestyles of hedonism, indulgence and mass consumption. The term Art Deco was not coined until the 1960’s by Bevis Hillier, a British historian and critic. Notable Art Deco buildings include the Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, Radio City Music Hall, The Chrysler Building, and the Midland Grand Hotel.


Tamara de Lempicka

Tamara de Lempicka is maybe on of the most famous painters of the Art Deco period. Lempicka was born in Poland and then proceeded to move to Russia where she lived until her husband was arrested by the Bolsheviks during the Russian revolution. She helped to release him and then they fled to Paris. This is where she learned to paint, enrolling at the Academie de la Grand Chaumiere and studying privately. Partially facilitated by her spare simple style, she was quite a prolific artist and was much sought after as a portrait artist. If you are interested in learning more about Tamara deLempicka I highly recommend checking out the 'Passion by Design' by her daughter, Kizette deLempicka-Foxhall. Works by Tamara de Lempicka include:

Young Girl With Gloves
Printemps
Portrait of Doctor Boucard
Amethyste
Mother Superior
Portrait of Pierre de Montaut
Girl Sleeping
Portrait of Grand Duke Gabriel (ca. 1927) (87K) Private Collection
Portrait of Marjorie Ferry (ca. 1927) (62K) Private Collection
Portrait of Madame Boucard (1931) (80K) Collection Boucard, Paris
Adam and Eve (ca. 1932) (56K) Petit Palais, Geneva
Auto-Portrait (Tamara in the Green Bugatti) (1925) (59K) Private Collection
Portrait of Madame M. (1933) (71K) Private Collection, Paris
Portrait d'Homme inacheve (Unfinished portrait of Tadeusz de Lempicki) (1928) (41K) Musee Georges Pompidou, Paris
Portrait of the Dutchess de la Salle (1925) (49K) Collection of Alain Blondel, Paris
Calla Lilies (1941) (81K) Private Collection, California
The Refugees (1937) (46K) Musee d'Art et d'Historie, Saint Denis
Romana de la Salle (1929) (77K)
Portrait of Ira P. (65K) Private Collection

Art Nouveau



The Art Nouveau movement occurred in the late 19th century from about 1894 to 1914, and was represented in Europe as well as in the United States. In each country “Art Nouveau” had a different meaning and identity, and artists were often piqued against each other in defining the art period. In summary, Art Nouveau is the avant-garde movement of the period in reaction to historical and academic perspectives. Art Nouveau artists wished to blur the lines between famous and minor artists, and unifying all arts, and unifying art with everyday human life – in essence, the art of the period became part of the architecture, placards, and jewelry in an attempt to combine life and art. Art Nouveau is characterized by its elegant decorative style, detailed patterns, curving lines, and art innovation. Leading artists include Aubrey Beardsley, Gustav Klimt, Alphonse Mucha, and the glassmaker Louis Comfort Tiffany.


Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt was born in 1862 to an Autrian jeweler, and studied at the School of Plastic Art in Vienna in his teenage years. From the age of 18 he took commissions for small decorative works. In 1897 he became the first President of the Vienna Sezession, but after he discovered the Byzantine mosaics of Vienna, he withdrew from the Sezession and became the President of the Austrian National Union of Artists in 1912. In 1917 he was granted an honorary professorship at the esteemed Viennese Academy. The early works by Klimt cause an uproar because of his scandalous subjects such as naked girls and skeletons and sexual expression. Ornamentation permeates the Klimt’s paintings, and it’s as if the bodies of his subjects are competing or struggling with the decorative background. Klimt was one of the main contributors to Art Nouveau, and his decadent style, his themes of sex and death, and his liberal expression foreshadowed the advent of modern art.


Alphonse Mucha

Alphonse Mucha was a Czech painter, poster artist and designer born in 1860, and contributed greatly to the Art Nouveau movement. He was able to study at the Munich Academy because of a wealthy patron friend in 1887. He began illustrating for several newspapers and magazines after his education and in 1894, he won renown for his first poster for Sarah Bernhardt. Many of works after this celebrated his Slav history, which reflected a very unique style of drawing – elegant, supple, and sophisticated. Mucha is well known for his intertwined and curved forms, depictions of wild plant life, and his expressions of women in paintings.


Louis Comfort Tiffany

Louis Comfort Tiffany was born in 1848 to a jewelry company owner, and is most renowned for his Art Nouveau style stained glass. He also designed pieces of furniture, jewelry, and wonderful paintings. Louis first studied under the painter George Inness and at the age of 24 he pursued an interest in glassmaking. In 1885 he founded his own glassmaking company, and invented a process of making opalescent glass, as well as a new technique for making hand blown vases and bowls. Louis’ company made a range of interior decorations including glass picture windows, lamps, and the full interior of his own house, Laurelton Hall in Oyster Bay. Louis C. Tiffany died in 1933 and is remembered for his innovation and contribution to the Art Nouveau Movement in the United States.

Arts and Crafts


The Arts and Crafts Movement became popular in the 1870’s and was first introduced to America through the Gothic Revival as well as through particular works of the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood. William Morris, who lectured on decorative arts, and Ruskin, an art and architecture critic were two notable characters that laid the foundation for the arts and crafts period. The company of William Morris, Morris & Co, started selling wallpaper, fabric, and carpet in the 1870’s. William was an artist, architect, and poet and he valued simplicity, good craftsmanship, and good design over the extravagance of the Victorian style. Morris felt that the Industrial Revolution had isolated people from their own creativity, and thus wanted to return to a style and creativity which could not be found in the newly popular mass produced items. The British movement happening at the same time focused on a detailed gothic style where walls were covered in wallpaper or white washed with themes from medieval times. Textiles and ceramics were realistic and colorful. Because the intricate craftsmanship cost more than factory goods, the average citizen could not afford these items, and thus the work of the Arts and Crafts Movement were limited to the richer upper classes. The arts and crafts movement contributed to American architecture and the development of the Queen Anne Revival. American Arts and Crafts artisans were initially inspired by English work, but later drew inspiration from the American Colonial period and the Old Colony Style. Oscar Wilde was a fan of the arts and crafts movement and actually went on a tour lecturing about the movements ideas.

Baroque



The Baroque movement originated in Italy in the late1500’s (spanning through to the 1700’s) and was later accepted by France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. This art period was a reaction against the formulaic Mannerist style which was the dominant form during the late Renaissance. Baroque style is more realistic and emotional than the complex Mannerist style. The movement was greatly encouraged by the Catholic Church because it marked a return to tradition and spirituality. Famous artist who greatly contributed to the Baroque period include Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velázquez, and Vermeer.


Caravaggio

Caravaggio, or Michelangelo Merisi, was born in Milan in 1571 to a ducal architect. Early in his life he studied under Simone Peterzano and Titian until 1588. He secured his first commission for Cardinal’s Casino dell’Aurora in Rome, and painted Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto. From that point on he was in high demand for public commissions but because of his violent temper he was constantly in trouble with the law. Finally in 1606 he had to flee in 1606 because of his involvement in a murder, and during his wanderings through Naples, he paints exclusively religious themes emphasizing sadness, suffering and death. Caravaggio is later pardoned by the Pope for his past crimes, but on arriving at Porto Escole by ship he is arrested and later released. Unfortunately Caravaggio gets struck down by a fever and dies without even reaching Rome again. Caravaggio’s tumultuous career was short but offered a huge contribution to the Baroque movement in that he was one of the first to paint people as ordinary looking, and express intense emotional realities.


Rembrandt

Rembrandt was born in 1606 in Leiden Netherlands and is considered a master of Western Art, completing more than 600 paintings and about 200 etchings and drawings throughout his lifetime. He’s explored many subjects such as nudes, landscapes, portraits, daily life scenes, birds and animals, mythological figures, biblical subjects and self portrats. At the age of 14 Rembrandt attended the University of Leiden until he dropped out to pursue his love of art. By the age of 22 he was already teaching students, and meeting wealthy patrons who commissioned portraits from him. Tragically, of Rembrandt’s children, only one of four survived infancy and his wife died in 1642. Rembrandt declared bankruptcy after living an extravagant lifestyle, and he was forced to auction off his mansion, and treasured art collection. After this point he began to focus on painting for personal enjoyment rather than for money, and these are considered his best because of the depth, richness, and spirituality that was missing from earlier works. In Rembrandt’s later years he married his housekeeper who died in 1663, followed by his only surviving son in 1668. Rembrandt himself passed away in 1669 but left a legacy of art that helped shape the Baroque movement.


Bernini

Bernini was born in 1598 and was the dominant figure of the Italian Baroque, specializing in sculpture and architecture. After being trained by his father, an accomplished sculptor, Bernini found work in Rome. Bernini completed early statues such as David, and Apollo and Daphne for Scipione Cardinal Borghese – one of the most important patrons of the period. In 1629 Bernini designed the ornate baldachin, the monument, and the marble decorations for St. Peter’s. Throughout the 1640’s Bernini designed the Cornaro Chapel, and the Santa Maria della Vittoria. He continued to design churches and established a new mode of art where he linked sculpture with architecture. Bernini passed away in 1680.

Bauhaus



The Bauhaus movement is a school of art, architecture and design characterized by geometric design, respect for practical material, and its severely economic sensibilities. The Bauhaus movement was founded by Walter Gropius in 1919 in Germany and ended in the 1930’s. Gropius coined the term Bauhaus as an inversion of the word meaning ‘house construction’ or ‘Hausbau’. Gropius taught at a school which focused on functional craftsmanship, and his students were guided to focus on designs that could be mass produced. The Bauhaus school had some famous teachers which included Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Marcel Breuer. The Bauhaus movement continues to influence us today, where any modern environment often incorporates elements of the period. The ideas of the Bauhaus creators have influenced architecture, furniture, typography, and weaving. Famous artists of the Bauhaus movement include Lyonel Feininger, Johannes Itten, Franz Marc, Georg Muche, and Oskar Schlemmer.


Walter Gropius

Walter Gropius was born in 1883 in Berlin to a German architect. He studied at the Technical Univerisities in Munich and Berlin and joined the company of Peter Behrens in 1910, later joining the practice of Adolph Meyer. After serving in the war Gropius joining several radical artist groups, finally becoming the Director of the Bauhaus. Gropius left the Bauhaus and resumed private practice as WWII approached, and later moved to the United States to become a professor at Harvard University. From 1938 to 1941 he worked on a group of houses with Marcel Breure and in 1945 he created "The Architect's Collaborative", which was a design team that encompassed his value of teamwork. Gropius was well known for his innovative designs that used modern materials and construction methods. He believed in industrialized and efficient buildings, he accepted standardization and mass production, and he supported the belief that team work was essential. In essence Gropius created buildings on precise math calculations and science. Gropius also introduced to the times a screen wall system that was made up of a structural steel frame, which allowed external glass walls to cover a surface uninterrupted. Gropius was an important teacher and theorist in his time and he died in Boston in 1969.

Body Art


Body art is extremely popular all over the world and includes anything that consists of the human body. Some of the most popular types of body art are tattoos, and piercings but other types of body art involve air brushing, scarring, branding, scalpelling, shaping with corsets and lace and body painting. In addition, body art encompasses nose rings, dydos, bangles, rings, makeup, studs, nose pins, and lip plates.There are more extreme types of body art involving mutilation, or pushing the physical limits of the body. Marina Abramovic is a body artist and her exhibit involved her dancing until she collapsed from tiring out. Dennis Oppenheim is another example of a body artist where he suntanned until he burned while holding a book to his chest – thus he had an outline of the book on his chest. On a less extreme level body art is a form of decorating the body, and emphasizing or showing off a certain feature.

Byzantine Art



The Byzantine art movement was active from the 5th century AD to 1453 during the time when the Byzantine Empire was dominant. The period was centered around the Orthodox church and featured painted icons, and decorative churches with mosaics and frescoes. With the fall of Constantinople (the center of the movement) to the Turks in 1453, the Byzantine style also ended. This occurred during the European Renaissance era but the influence of Byzantine art remained strong in Russia, and other areas where the Orthodox church was influential.

The Byzantine style grew out of traditional designs such as pictures of saints and Bible stories and repetitive decoration. There does not seem to be any basis on natural forms as the human figures are unnaturally long, the emotions are formal and still, and the facial expressions are conventional, rigid and almost lifeless. The most prominent figures of the period are Christ, the Virgin Mary, the apostles, the saints, Bishops and angels. The political structure of the period revolved around the emperor who was believed to be divinely appointed by God. Art played a large role in visualizing his powers with images of gods, goddesses, cherubs, and personifications of virtues.


Andrei Rublev

Andrei Rublev is a legendary Byzantine style painter born in the 1360’s in Russia. Even in the fifteenth century Rublev’s icons were considered extremely valuable, and were much coveted. Rublev’s works were so popular that the Church Council in Moscow directed that the correct representation for the Trinity was to be painted from models as painted by Greek painters and by Andrei Rublev. Very few of Rublev’s great works have survived, but the ones that have include The Lives of Russian Saints, individual icons, the festival tier of the Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow’s Kremlin, frescoes in the Cathedral of the Assumption, and The Old Testament from the Holy Trinity Cathedral.


Cimabue

Cimabue or Cenni di Pepe was a painter that concluded the Byzantine era. He was submitted to the rules of the Byzantine style but took it to the greatest heights of expression, paving the way for artists such as Giotto and new trends in Italian painting. Cimague was first mentioned for his work on Roman mosaics in 1272, and then again in 1278 when he began his work on the Franciscan basilica at Assisi, which he worked on with Sienese painter Duccio di Buoninsegna, and Giotto from Florence. Cimabue most likely created the Crucifix in Arezzo, and the Crucifix in Santa Croece. Cimabue’s earliest works tend to be rigid and lifeless, whereas later in life, his works portray new sensitivity to body movement and emotional expression.


The Lorenzetti Brothers

The Lorenzetti brothers were two 14th century Italian painters of the Byzantine period, born in Siena. They attended the Sienese school built around the Byzantine style tradition – it was run by Duccio di Buoninsegna and Simone Martini. The Lorenzetti brothers were the first Sienese artists to manifest the style of Tuscon sculptor Giovanni Pisano in that they experimented with 3-dimensional images and spatial arrangements; this foreshadowed the advent of the Renaissance. Pietro was more traditional than his brother and focused on refinement, harmony and dramatic emotion. His works include the altarpiece portraying Madonna and Child with Saints, frescoes in the lower Church in Assisi, and the masterpiece the Birth of the Virgin. Ambrogio was more realistic and inventive than his brother and is best known for his fresco cycles Good Government and Bad Government, as well as his painting Presentation in the Temple.

Classicism



Classicism is the art movement founded on aesthetic attitudes based on the art, literature and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. The movement emphasizes form, proportion, restrained emotion and simplicity. The principles of classicism were derived from the practices and guidelines of the ancients, and the term has come to mean adherence to specific academic canons. The first major revival of classicism was during the Renaissance resulting from a fresh interest in Roman and Greek culture. Again in the 18th century the interest in classicism was sparked by the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii; this period is defined as neoclassicism and is considered to be phase one of the romantic movement.


Phidias of Athens

Phidias of Athens was a Classical Greek sculptor who lived from 493 to 430 BC, and is one of the greatest sculptors of ancient Greece. He was son to Charmides and is well known for his 40 foot tall statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and his statue of Zeus at Olympia. The Athena, with "chryselephantine" workmanship, featured plates of ivory on a wood core, with stone flesh and solid gold drapery and ornaments. Phidias' Athena was destroyed in antiquity and was the chief treasure of Athens. We know of its existence because several copies were made and preserved, and it is also represented on gems and coins. The Zeus was constructed of ivory and gold and is counted as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Phidias was sent to prison after being charged with impiety and it is thought that he died there.

Color Field Art


Color field paintings are defined by solid areas of color that cover the whole canvas. Artists that embraced this style were Mark Rothko (1903 – 1970), Jules Olitski (1922 -), and Kenneth Noland (1924 -). Color field art is a subtype of Abstract Expressionism where artists became interested in the effects that large expanses of color had on the atmosphere and mood of the work. Color field paintings are generally large, and convey a sense of infinity, and being immersed in an environment of color. Examples of color field painting include:

Alma Thomas, Orion, 1973, oil on canvas
Barnett Newman (American, 1905-1970), Day One, 1951-52, oil on canvas
Morris Louis (American, 1912-1962), VAV, 1960, acrylic on unprimed canvas
Jules Olitski (American, 1922-), Instant Loveland, 1968, acrylic on canvas
Kenneth Noland (American, 1924-), Gift, 1961-2, acrylic on canvas

Constructivism



Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1915 to the 1940’s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace. Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky.


El Lissitzky

El Lissitzky, or Lazar Lissitzky was born in 1890 and died in 1941 and worked as an architect, a painter, a typographer and a designer. He grew up in the same hometown as Marc Chagall, Vitebsk, and studied architecture at the Polytechnic school in Darmstadt from 1909 to 1914. El Lissitzky worked as an architect in Moscow after he completed his studies, and also began to illustrate children's books in 1917 in a style greatly influenced by Chagall. El Lissitzky became a professor at the art school in Vitebsk in 1919 and worked alongside Malevich. While teaching he began a series of abstract paintings which he called Prouns because they combined both painting and architecture. In addition Lissitzky designed books, and innovative typography techniques. El Lissitzky's works, which are mostly gouaches, currently run for values between $15,000 and $150,000.

Cubism



Cubism was sparked in 1907 by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, and is one of the most potent art movements of the 20th century. The cubists were inspired by painters like Georges Seurat, Fauves, and Paul Cezanne as well as by African sculpture as you can see in many of Picasso’s works. Cubist artists believed in breaking up a subject matter, analyzing it, and then re assembling it in abstract form.

Instead of depicting an object from one angle, cubist artists were able to paint an object from multiple angles at the same time in order to represent an object in the most complete way possible. Braque and Picasso took this idea to heart after hearing the advice of Paul Cezanne in 1904: nature should be treated “in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone”. There were three main stages to the development of the cubist movement: Facet Cubism, Analytic Cubism, and Synthetic Cubism. The first controversial exhibition that gave cubism it’s initial fame was put on by Braque and Raoul Dufy in 1908, both artists having fauvist beginnings. They created a series of landscapes with limited variety of colors and simplified forms.

Art critic Louis Vauxcelles described Braque as an artists that “scorns form and reduces everything, sites, figures and houses, to geometric schemas and cubes”. Over the next couple years Braque and Picasso created works broken into planes and edges defying perspective and depth. Many cubist works have bland colors and uniform small brushstrokes which work to create vibrations of light.

Braque and Picasso conveyed elements of illusion, unconventional continuity and density. Even though the first world war stopped Picasso and Braque from working together on the Cubist movement, the cubist core continued to be active until the 1920’s. Cubism artists like Matisse, Laurens, Lipchitz, and Fernand Leger were all influenced by the works of Braque, Picasso, and Cezanne before them.


Pablo Picasso

Picasso was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Malaga, Spain as the first child to Jose Ruiz y Blasco and Maria Picasso y Lopez. He is known as one of the founders of cubism along with Georges Braque. In his lifetime Picasso created about 13000 paintings or designs, 34000 book illustrations, 300 sculptures, and 100000 art prints. Picasso’s father was a painter that specialized in natural bird images and was a famous professor of art in the School of Crafts. Picasso’s father tutored him in art, teaching him drawing and oil painting. Picasso went to school for carpentry throughout his childhood, but did not finish his college courses at the Academy of Arts in Madrid. In many of Picasso’s earliest works he uses images of harlequins, which are humorous characters sporting checkered clothing. The harlequin eventually became a symbol for Picasso. In the 1930’s the painter picked up a new symbol, the minotaur to replace the harlequin motif, most likely because of his interaction with the surrealists who often used the minotaur as a symbol. You’ll find an example of this in Picasso’s Guernica painting.

Picasso’s work can be divided into 5 different periods:

1. The Blue Period – ranged from 1901 to 1904 and consisted of low intensity blue paintings that were the result of the suicide of Carlos Casagemas, a close friend to Picasso. The Blue Period features acrobats, harlequins, paupers, various artists, and women of the night.

2. The Rose Period – ranged from 1905 to 1907 and was characterized by more upbeat colors including oranges and pinks. Picasso was in Paris at the time and had befriended Fernande Olivier, a model for artists.

3. The African influenced Period – ranged from 1908 to 1909 and was influenced by African artifacts.

4. Analytic Cubism – ranged from 1909 to 1912 and featured the unique cubist style which he developed with Braque using browns and grays. The motive was to pick objects apart and analyze them in terms of shapes and components that make them up. Picasso and Braque’s paintings resemble each other’s at this time.

5. Synthetic Cubism – ranged from 1912 to 1919 in which Picasso used pieces of cut paper to create artwork. He’d paste the fragments of newsprint, magazines, and wallpaper into collages, which were the first to be presented as fine art.

Dada


The Dada art movement reigned from about 1916 to 1920 mainly in the countries of France, Germany and Switzerland. The Dadaism movement was based on principles of anarchy, cynicism, and rejecting the laws of social organization and beauty. The Dadaists sought to discover reality by abolishing traditional culture and accepted aesthetic forms. The group protested against World War I, and bourgeois interests that they feel inspired the war. The nihilistic point of view was also prevalent within the Dadaist movement. The name ‘Dada’ was created for the movement when a group of young artists and war resisters (including Jean Arp, Richard Hulsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, and Emmy Hennings) stuck a paper knife into a French-German dictionary and found that it pointed to the word dada, the French word for ‘hobby horse’. Cabaret Voltaire was where the ideas of Dada were spawned and later the surrealists used it as their art forum. Cabaret Voltaire fell into desrepair after World War II but in 2002 a group of artists claiming to be ‘neo-Dadaists’ led by Mark Divo began to occupy Cabaret Voltaire. Over three months there were a variety of exhibitions and performances at the Cabaret including artists like Ingo Giezendammer, Mikry Drei, Lennie Lee, Leumund Cult, Aiana Calugar and Dan Jones. Eventually the occupants were evicted from the building which later reopened as a cabaret with programs, events, and exhibitions. The leading member of the Dada movement was Marcel Duchamp whose first piece of art for the movement, the ‘Bicycle Wheel” which was made up of a wheel mounted on the seat of a stool. The Dadaist movement was never very stable and eventually melded into surrealism by 1924. New ideas and art periods began emerging like socialist realism, and modernism which became popular with many of the Dadaist members. By World War II and Dada movement had almost completely dissipated as many of the European artists fled to the USA or died in Hitler’s death camps.

De Stijl


The De Stijl, literally translated as “the style” was an art movement founded by architect by architect and painter Theo van Deosburg in 1917 in Leiden. Other founders of the group included the sculptor Vantongerloo, architect JJP Oud, designer Rietveld, and the painter Mondrian. The group was intent on finding a new aesthetic of art and principles. The movement spread through town planning, fine arts, applied arts and philosophy. The De Stijl movement also published a magazine between 1917 and 1932 and provided and overview of the movement’s works and theories. In the magazine Mondrian comments that the “pure plastic vision should build a new society, in the same way that in art it has built a new plasticism”. Artists of the De Stijl movement saw art as a collective approach, and as a language that went beyond culture, geography and politics. The artwork created by the De Stijl movement artists gave off a depersonalized, anonymous feel. It was felt that the artist’s personality should take a back seat in the artwork. The key to creating art within the movement’s views was to follow the theory of scaling down formal components of art – using only primary colors and straight lines. A painting was created from the features on the surface and many De Stijl paintings convey elements of nature – expressed abstractly. Mondrian followed the principles of new-plasticism whereas Van Doesburg attempted to broaden the movement’s research projects in architechture – he wanted to recreate the entire living space within a home. De Stijl paintings usually represented parts of larger spaces like interiors spaces within houses. De Stijl forms were often geometric, and made up of primary colors. The main views of the De Stijl movement greatly influenced the Bauhaus movement in Germany in the 1920’s.

Der Blaue Reiter


The Der Blaue Reiter movement was a German expressionist art period lasting from 1911 to 1914. The name Der Blaue Reiter was taken from one of Kandinsky’s works, Le Cavalier bleu. The movement was led by Kadinsky, Klee, Marc, and Macke – a group of expressionist artists greatly influenced by the Brucke artists of the previous decade – the Der Blaue Reiter did not believe in the main objective of the Brucke movement (simply focusing on one group of artists).

The Der Blaue Reiter artists attempted to find spiritual truths that they felt impressionists had not conveyed. The art movement was not stylistically unified as demonstrated by the range of pure abstractions created by Kadinsky versus the romantic images of Marc. The Der Blaue Reiter believed in changeability, new ideas, and the mixing of different ideas of spirituality and art.

Expressionism



Expressionism encompasses the art movement that existed from 1905 to 1925. Expressionism is characterized by distortion and exaggeration in order to create an emotional effect. Expressionism first appeared in the art literature of the 20th century, and with regards to art, the expressionist style utilizes intense color, disjointed spaces, and agitated brushstrokes. It is interesting to note that the expressionist movement not only included fine arts, but also dance, movies, literature, and theater. Expressionist artists do not attempt to convey realities, rather they attempt to portray subjective emotions and responses to objects and environment.

Expressionism is different from impressionism in that it does not try to reproduce the impression of the surrounding world; instead, expressionism allows the artist to impose personal representations of the world in connection to personal emotions. Expressionism is not so much concerned with representing accurate forms and harmony, but rather it strives to achieve the highest expression intensity through the use of exaggeration, distortion, primitivism, and fantasy - often incorporating elements of violence and vividness. Expressionism arose first in Germany around 1910 and some of the major artists influencing the movement included Cezanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh and the fauvism period. Some of the most famous artists of the Expressionism movement include Otto Dix, Max Beckmann, Alfred Kubin, Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Edvard Munch, and Marc Chagall.


Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch was an Expressionist artist from Norway born in Loten in 1863. Munch began working on paintings by the age of 17 and a state grant allowed him to study in Paris in 1863. Edvard Munch's paintings express elements of anguish, brooding, and pain based on personal obsessions and grief. This was an essential contribution to the development of the Expressionist movement. Edvard Munch's paintings began as broad expressions, and his later works became more and more personalized with images relating mostly to illness and death.

Munch held an exhibition in 1892 that shocked the public so much that the show was closed. Munch's most famous painting "The Scream", and "The Sick Child" demonstrate the trauma that Munch underwent when he witnessed the death of his mother and sister to tuberculosis. Many of the Munch's paintings convey limp figures, hidden faces, threatening shapes looming, brooding houses, sexual anxieties, and innocent sufferers. Overall the moods of his works are meloncholic and intense.

Edvard Munch was hospitalized when his anxiety became too serious and he returned to Norway in 1909. Edvard Munch died in Oslo in 1944 and left significant works that were simple, vigorous and direct in style, which worked as important forces for later modern graphic art.